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Brain injury can result from various things:

  • head trauma from car accidents
  • stroke (when an artery in the brain ruptures)
  • anoxia (loss of oxygen supply to brain)
  • poisoning (binge drinking) 

A coma is when a patient cannot be roused. The body continues to exhibit reactions however. For example, in coma patients, reflexes such as gagging and pupil contraction retain present. This means that atleast the unconscious circuitry in the brain is working. 

A coma can lead to 4 things

  • Fast Recovery: exactly what it sounds like, the patient is conscious once more
  • Vegetative State: there is no responsiveness, although the patient can now exhibit complex reflexes such as yawning and eye movements. The patient might even smile, cry or frown with no obvious cause. Neurologists consider this behavior reflexive, as the spinal cord may generate involuntary movements 
  • Locked In Syndrome: a condition in which a patient is aware but cannot move or communicate verbally due to complete paralysis of nearly all voluntary muscles in the body except for the eyes
  • Brain death: total absence of brain stem reflexes. There is a flat EEG line and the patient can’t breathe. Neurons start to degenerate quickly and melt away. Currently this step is irreversible. Most countries identify brain death with death. 

A vegetative step can lead to two things

  • Minimally conscious state: characterized by some evidence of awareness of self and/or the environment. During some periods they can maintain control of their actions. They can respond to a verbal order and follow a mirror with their eye. Their behavior can be variable. Some days they will show signs of being aware and others days not at all. 
  • Permanent Vegetative State: implies lack of recovery and a prolonged vegetative state. In rare cases there will be conscious but uncommunicating patients. See below. 


SOURCE: Consciousness & The Brain by Stanislas Dehaene 


Anonymous asked:

Wow! Anon asked an awesome question! As a counted to that, would you mind giving your ideas on female characters you'd like to see more? And, if you don't mind, do you have a list of flaws that you'd love to see (or avoid) on MC's?


ladygreen99 said:

What kind of females would you like to see more of in fiction?

anonymous said:

What types of female characters would you like to see more of in fiction?


1) Clumsiness being the only flaw or a flaw that the protagonist names right away is really annoying. This “flaw” is often found in flat and static characters.

That’s pretty much it for flaws. There are other flaws that annoy me, but they’re annoying because of how they’re written, not just because they exist.


1) Female heroes and villains who are written as well as Katara and Azula from Avatar: the Last Airbender. Both characters were amazing on their own, but their confrontations and interactions with each other were brilliant and well balanced in terms of action and skill.

2) (Supernaturally) powerfully women who have limits. It’s common in fantasy for female characters who have supernatural or magical abilities to be nearly all-powerful or to outsmart everyone while they stand off to the side and smile. This is so boring. Let them lose or get worried about losing. Give them some limits and flaws in their abilities.

3) Female characters who aren’t attractive and who take up roles other than antagonist/old witch/celibate warrior/nerd if they are unattractive. I feel like there’s not enough variety in the appearance of female characters, especially when they’re teenagers or young adults.

4) Female characters who are more balanced. They’re either tough fighters who are always mopey and pissed off or they’re shy, quiet, and a little bit helpless. This is mostly for speculative fiction. Why can’t your characters have happy moments?

5) Female protagonists who come from humble beginnings with no special skills or any mysteries to them, but who end up being the hero. Male characters get to start out like that, but I rarely see female characters who are able to take the role of the hero without having some super special skill. Start from Level 1.

6) Female characters whose appearances are described, but who are never described as how attractive they are. Just describe them.

7) Female characters whose moralities do not align with the female protagonist’s moralities, but who are written as just different and not inferior. This refers to the “virgin vs whore” trope that often appears in YA.

8) Female characters who have a male friend, but who do not end up with them romantically and who do not refer to them as a brother/have a sibling-like relationship with them. There’s nothing wrong with either, but I never see them just having a platonic relationship without romantic or brotherly traits added.

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